相请不如“偶”遇、一次目睹中日两种传统文化偶戏 Japanese Bunraku meets Teochew Puppetry = Red, Hot, Furious Love

[编辑 Editor 刘大人   英译 Translator 刘大人]

早在还没有出现三维立体高清技术或现代化舒适影院前,木偶可说是电影的最早期呈献方式;而日本人形净琉璃文樂和潮州铁枝木偶更始于15世纪,两地偶戏的创作都把爱情、战争等情感寄托于故事,表现当时封建社会的风貌。究竟这两种民间艺术是如何屹立不倒,甚至能在这信息科技时代继续发光发热,且让大人为各位看官娓娓道来!

Before the invention of film, humans depicted motion in art as far back as the 15th century, when Puppetry as an art form was used as a variation to storytelling or human theatrical productions even before the advent of human actors. Without the aid of sound technology and special effects, ever wonder how some of these earlier ancient cultures are keeping to their roots, evolved and still practised today? Here’re two familiar forms….

人形净琉璃
Bunraku

Bunraku2

经大人明察秋毫,惊叹地发现人形净琉璃文楽木偶戏原来历史悠久,是日本最主要的传统舞台艺术形式之一;集说唱、乐器伴奏和木偶剧于一体。起源于江户时代(1600年前后),它是15世纪流行的一种叙事净琉璃艺术(用三弦琴伴唱的日本说唱曲艺)与木偶艺术的结晶。剧情主要为封建时代的历史剧,以及揭示感情与社会责任之间冲突的当代戏剧。

Designated by the Japanese government as an Intangible Cultural Property and by UNESCO as a World Intangible Cultural Heritage, Bunraku involves a number of puppeteers (ningyotsukai)—dressed in black against a dark backdrop as if invisible—who manipulate lavishly costumed large puppets. A single chanter (tayu) is responsible for expressing the dialogue and emotions for all characters in a script; while a shamisen player enhances the atmosphere of the play through his three-stringed lute.

人形净琉璃文楽座
Ningyojoruri Bunrakuza 

Bunraku_team

更让大人惊讶的是,文楽早在1995年已被指定为日本国家重要非物质文化遗产,更在2009年9月又入选了联合国教科文组织非物质文化遗产名录,绝对是一种宝贵的日本民间传统艺能。最初被称作“人形净琉璃”,是因为它是一种配有净琉璃曲调的木偶剧。太夫(也写作大夫)说唱净琉璃,三味线(三弦)乐手弹奏乐曲,木偶师操控木偶;三者缺一不可,可说是不折不扣的“三业一体”的综合艺术。

此次也是日本人形净琉璃即2013年在吉隆坡“亮相”后第四次在大马公演,却是首次在新山演出,也是今年大马场的唯一一场表演,本地看官们可说是“眼福”不浅啊,应该好好把握机会哦!

Ranking with Noh and Kabuki as one of Japan’s foremost stage arts, the Ningyo Joruri Bunraku puppet theatre is a blend of sung narrative, shamisen music and puppet drama. This theatrical form emerged during the early Edo period when puppetry was coupled with Joruri, a famous fifteenth-century narrative genre. The plots related in this new form of puppet theatre are derived from two principal sources: historical plays set in feudal times (Jidaimono) and contemporary dramas exploring the conflict between affairs of the heart and social obligation (Sewamono). Approximately 160 works out of the 700 plays written during the Edo period have remained in today’s repertory. Nowadays, it attracts numerous young performers and the aesthetic qualities and dramatic content of the plays continue to appeal to modern audiences.

The visit marks the fourth time the group has stepped foot into Malaysia, and finally making its long-awaited debut in Johor Bahru to display the spellbinding appeal of the 300-year-old dramatic art. Members were part of a pioneering entourage that presented South East Asia’s first full-scale Bunraku performance in Kuala Lumpur in 2013. The following year, these masters-in-training returned to the capital for a joint demonstration with a wayang kulit troupe led by Kamrulbahri Hussin. They then debuted bunraku in Penang at the inaugural Butterworth Fringe Festival in 2015, which saw them share the stage with local practitioners of Potehi glove puppetry.

潮州铁枝木偶
Teochew Iron-rod Puppetry

TeochewPuppetry潮州铁枝木偶系由南宋时期随中原移民传入的皮影戏演变而来。其发展过程是由平面剪影逐步经历 “阳窗纸影”(平面)、
“圆身纸影”(立体)而成为现在的木偶,故操纵仍保持皮影戏的特点而称为铁枝木偶。清代以后,为满足观众视觉欣赏需要,艺人们逐渐把舞台蒙上的白纸去掉,把偶像从平面改为圆身,于是 “捆草为身、扎纸为手、削木为足、塑泥为头”,在当时称为”圆身纸影”。后经艺人不断实践,逐步形成偶像舞台表演。

The history of Teochew iron-rod puppetry began in the Central Plains of China as shadow puppets, which were two-dimensional made of dried leather strips and controlled with three long iron-rods attached to the arms and the torso.

During the Southern Song period (1127–1279 CE), refugees fleeing south away from the instability and barbarian invasions of the time brought the art to the Chaozhou (or Teochew) region. There, it adopted many aspects of the rich local operatic tradition. From the Qing dynasty onwards (c. 17th-century), in order to improve its visual impact, these shadow puppeteers experimented with removing the white screen (usually paper) between the audience and the puppets, so that the puppets became directly visible. To take full advantage of the greater dynamism this allows, the puppets became three-dimensional, first with hay, then more robust wooden bodies. These puppets have, however, retained the method of control of their shadow puppet antecedents that are their most unique feature, hence their classification as “iron-rod” puppets.

金玉楼春潮州木偶剧团
Kim Giak Low Choon Teochew Puppet Troupe

KimGiakLowChoon

不说你不知,来自大马潮艺馆的金玉楼春潮州木偶剧团则是第一个从中国南来的戏班,特点是用3根铁枝表演。创办人是杜爱花女士,13岁时进入“老荣秀春班”当学徒。她用心且勤奋的学习,深获班主重用,成年后成为一位出色的女司鼓,并在木偶团里演出小生角色,累积多年经验并精通各种乐器。后来,老班主年事渐高,加上其家族无人愿意继承木偶团业,因此杜爱花便向老班主献意买下戏班,将之易名为“金玉楼春班”。

在杜爱花与夫婿吴根阵,以及其4个孩子们的努力经营之下,金玉楼春潮音木偶团受到国内各地民众的赞许,常受邀到各地区演出,可说是用血汗所共同经营的家族式的木偶团。

KimGiakLowChoon2

In the 19th century, Ling Goh’s great-grandfather (first generation) brought his “Lao Sai Yong Feng Opera Troupe” from Chaozhou (Teochew) to Singapore. “Lao Sai Yong Feng” was the first opera troupe to arrive in Southeast Asia. “Lao Sai Yong Feng” travelled and performed across Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Indonesia before settling in Penang. The troupe then renamed itself as the “Lao Rong Xiu Chun Puppet Troupe” and mainly performed with puppets. It was later renamed again as “Kim Giak Low Choon Teochew Puppet Troupe”.

The “Kim Giak Low Choon Teochew Puppet Troupe” has persevered until the current 5th generation, helmed by Ling Goh, current curator of the Penang Teochew Puppet and Opera House. In 2008, it was recognised as a Living Heritage Treasure by the Penang Heritage Trust.

亚洲木偶文化交流会
Asian Traditional Puppet Exchange

两个来自不同国家的剧团將分別为新山观众带来日本江户时代与中国明朝的精彩木偶剧,演出前將会有与观众互动的环节;演出后,两个剧团也将会进行现场文化交流,来一场罕见的中日木偶大会串。当日本东洋传统文樂遇上来到南洋发扬光大的潮州铁枝偶戏,究竟会擦出什么火花?大人就索性卖个关子,就请各位看官在来临的星期日下午在美迪尼广场的黑箱子亲身体验吧!

Watch the 300-year-old art of Bunraku brought to life before your eyes this Sunday afternoon at The Black Box @ MAP, Mall of Medini. In collaboration with Johor Bahru: International Festival City, The Japan Foundation, Kuala Lumpur is bringing six young leaders of the Japanese Bunraku scene who will astound audiences in Johor with an elaborate showcase of poignant storytelling, live music and large puppets. Set to exhibit the techniques that have been handed down over three centuries, the programme will debut with an excerpt from “The Red-Hot Love of a Greengrocer’s Daughter”, one of 160 plays written during the Edo period (1603-1868) that remain in the national archive, for its only appearance in Malaysia this year, so don’t miss this!

莲香戏鞋
(Love of the Celestial Fox)
The Black Box @ MAP, MAll of Medini 黑箱子

文化付费
Tickets are sold at the door.

中间座位 (Front) RM50
旁边座位 (Side) RM10

千年狐仙莲香下凡游玩,巧遇桑生两情相悦。女鬼李纨冒充莲香好友,日夜陪伴桑生,之后东窗事发,莲香毅然离去。但桑生元阳已损,危在旦夕。李纨上山求助表诉前衷,莲香深明大义,赴天庭求金丹甘露解救,并助李纨借尸还魂与桑生共结连理,脱离红尘回归仙界。

A thousand-year-old celestial fox called Lotus descends upon the mortal realm, meeting a mortal man named Sangsheng. The two fall madly in love. Sangsheng had been betrothed before, but his betrothed, Li Wan, passed away before they could marry. Returning to Sangsheng under another guise, her spirit inhabits an embroidered slipper. There, she competes with Lotus for Sangsheng’s affections in a series of escalating antics. It all comes to a head when Lotus’ true form is eventually revealed. Lotus resolves to leave, but when Sangsheng falls gravely ill, Li Wan begs Lotus to help. Seeing Li Wan’s love for Sangsheng, Lotus appeals to the Divine High Sage of Virtue and the Guanyin Bodhisattva for a cure to save Sangsheng, as well as to reincarnate the spirit of Li Wan in a new body, so that the two betrothed may be together again. After her good deed, she leaves the mortal realm for good to continue her ascension to full divinity.

伊達娘恋緋鹿子 / Date musume koi no higanoko
(The Red-Hot Love of the Greengrocer’s Daughter)
The Black Box @ MAP, MAll of Medini 黑箱子

The “Fire Watchtower” scene from The Red-Hot Love of the Greengrocer’s Daughter

日本人形净琉璃文楽座所带来的演出节录自「果菜商女儿炽热的爱」的其中一幕「岗楼」,

Oshichi, a greengrocer’s daughter, is upset after she finds a sword lost by her lover Kichisaburo. The price for having made such a mistake is none other than seppuku. Oshichi wishes to inform him immediately but is unable to exit the city centre as all gates are closed and will only be reopened come daybreak. However, fire alarms are an exception to this rule. A desperate Oshichi spots a watchtower in the distance and proceeds to ring the bell, knowing all too well that sounding a false alarm is a serious crime.

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